Text: Mitchner, E. and R. Tuffs. Century of Change: Europe From 1789 to 1918. Toronto: Reidmore Books, 1997. ISBN 1-895073-87-1.*

Course Outline:


History 3285 is a two credit study of European History in the 19th Century with focus on six themes. The course is open to both International Baccalaureate and non-IB students:


  • IB Students: History 3285 (Level 2) followed by History 4285 (Level 3); and
  • non-IB Students: History 3285 (Level 2) followed by 20th Century World History 3201 (Level 3).


History 3201 is taught using a variety of lecture, and small group activities using internet research. Emphasis is on the instruction and practice of research and writing skills including the development of historical essays. To this end, students will practice research skills appropriate for post-secondary studies.



1. French Revolution: causes, course, effects


  • intellectual origins, philosophies
  • Louis XVI and the monarchy, ancient regime
  • political, fiscal, economic problems
  • constitutional experiments, radicals, terror
  • Robespierre, Jacobins, Girondins
  • revolutionary wars, reaction, the Directory, rise of Napoleon I


2. Napoleon I and the restored French Monarchy to 1848


  • Napoleon I: domestic and foreign policies
  • Napoleonic wars, the Treaties of Paris, the Vienna Settlement
  • restored Bourbons: Louis XVIII, 1814 to 1824; Charles X, 1824 to 1830; Louis Philippe, 1830 to 1848
  • revolutions in France, 1830 and 1848


3. Post-Napoleonic Europe to 1852


  • Vienna and post-Napoleonic settlement, attitudes of the Great Powers
  • later Congresses: Aix-la-Chapelle, Troppau, Laibach and Verona
  • Metternich’ influence in Austria-Hungary and Europe
  • demands for parliamentary/constitutional reform
  • 1848 revolutions: causes, events, suppression, results


4. Italian unification, 1815 to 1871


  • separatism, the Papacy, Rome
  • republicanism, 1848 revolutions
  • growth of power of Piedmont-Sardinia
  • contributions of Mazzini, Garibaldi and Cavour
  • foreign involvement


5. Changing balance of power between Prussia/Germany and Austria up to 1871


  • Austria and Prussia, 1815 to 1848
  • economic developments, the Zollverein
  • 1848 revolutions
  • Bismarck, domestic and foreign policies
  • wars, unification of Germany
  • the dual monarchy, Austria-Hungary


6. Russia and Eastern Europe in the second half of the 19th century


  • Russian territorial aims, decline of the Ottoman Empire, eastern question
  • Crimean war, Balkan nationalism, Poland
  • Alexander II, 1855 to 1881, emanciapation of serfs, other reforms, reaction
  • Alexander III, 1881 to 1894, economic policies, Witte, repression
  • nature of stardom, growth of opposition



Theme Quizzes & Tests 10% (4-5 quizzes and 4-5 tests)
Assignments & Homework 10% (timelines, maps, group activities, text worksheets, etc.)
Midterm Exam (January)/2 hours 10%
Research Essays 10%
Final Exam (June)/3 hours 60%